Ask an Economist

E.g., Thursday, August 6, 2020
E.g., Thursday, August 6, 2020
Question:
Hi, quick question: can a tariff be counted as a fiscal policy measure? Currently studying the great depression and curious to know if the Smoot-Hawley act which raised US tariff on 20,000 imports counts as a contractionary Policy fiscal policy. My thinking behind this is it did involve the raising of taxes on imported goods,and increasing taxes are usually considered a contractionary fiscal policy measure. Please help. Thanks.
Answer:

In discussing the impact of economic policy on aggregate demand and the balance of trade in open economies, international economists often talk about two types of (non-monetary) policies: “expenditure reduction policies” and “expenditure...

Question:
In the world of vintage car collecting, a frequent topic of discussion is whether prices for a particular model or type are rising or falling. Answering this question is made more difficult by the fact that very few transactions are documented. We know that a given car was listed for price X, but we don't know what price it actually sold for, or to whom.

Does economics provide any model by which one can infer anything about actual selling prices for something, based only on data obtained from published asking prices? For example, if we had a data set of ~3000 sales over 20 years, and we knew that asking prices in real dollars were basically flat, would that tell us anything about the selling prices? Would they also be flat? Or maybe instead would they be gradually approaching the asking price? I have no idea.

Thank you.
Answer:

The question you are asking is about the bid-ask spread.  The bid is what a buyer wants to pay for an item. The ask is what the seller wishes to receive.  You know the ask, you want to know the bid.  The bid would be demand, the...

Question:
What are the fringe benefits of being an economist?
Answer:

Taken literally, fringe benefits are extra, non-monetary compensation, such as health insurance, etc. provided you by your employer.  I suspect, however, that the person who submitted this question is not interested in the package of...

Question:
What is the impact of production being directed towards what appears to be endless product differentiation, for example multiple flavours of toothpaste or shampoo variations which ultimately do nothing to improve individual well being? Does this form of market operation generate employment or is it a waste of productive capacity that might be better directed towards activity that genuinely increases well being. For example, creating products that delivers a real benefit.
Answer:

Does the market provide too many or too few products, relative to some social optimum benchmark? It turns out that this question does not have a simple answer. It depends on whether or not consumers are well (perfectly) informed about products'...

Question:
With this global and U. S. crisis because of the coronavirus what is the possibility of the catastrophic devaluation of the dollar so that my buying power is greatly reduced?
Answer:

1) The coronavirus is everywhere.  It is not obvious it would affect the U.S. dollar differently than the Euro or Yen or Yuan.  All the governments and economies are stressed, and so relative values will be unaffected.

2)...

Question:
Hi. I studied economics at undergraduate level and have encountered the profit maximising rule of MR = MC; with the standard premise for such calculations involving the production of goods with a fixed price per unit. I currently work in the construction sector (demolition) where each of our projects have a different cost and revenue from other projects. As such, I would like to know if/how the above measure could be applied to the service sector? My current thinking is that the data must be manipulated to achieve the cost per square foot of a site. However, this will involve significant data manipulation just to run the calculations. Could you tell me if I am on the right track with this direction or whether there is an alternative way that I could calculate the profit-maximising output? My goal in answering this question is to determine the appropriate mark-up for our business when submitting a quote to a client. At present, we are charging a 10% mark-up which I currently believe to be too low to be sustainable. Any assistance on this would be greatly appreciated.
Answer:

Hello:

Suppose you have N projects, each of them with possibly different but constant marginal costs (MC). Since the marginal cost for each project is constant, the average variable cost is also constant, and your profits can be expressed...

Question:
When health care spending (or military spending or education) is tallied as a "percentage of GDP," doesn't that GDP figure include that same health spending? If you remove all that double-dipping, what would those percentages look like?
Answer:

Thank you for your question. Indeed, part of the expenditure in health expenditure and defense will count towards total GDP. The reason why the total GDP (including health expenditure or defense expenditure themselves) is used as a denominator to...

Question:
I apologize, as this will seem to be a very, very vague question. I don't know that it is so very vague as much as it is nuanced and not so easily answered without a tremendous amount of effort and time information gathering.

I'm very, very, very curious what an economist thinks about the automotive repair trade. We aren't really a professional industry as there are no requirements or licenses to become a professional repair technician or work in a professional repair facility. Auto repair has become extremely high tech and sophisticated, in many areas, but also retained many of the same procedures from decades and decades ago with maybe a few changes. So, we have the need for two distinct types of individuals. The thinkers, and the doers. Thinkers for the analyzing of systems and data for diagnostic decisions and dealing with technology (computers both on the car and to be used in the shop for scan tools, oscilloscopes, programming, coding, etc, etc), doers to take it apart and put it back together efficiently and properly.

Most repair facilities are operated by former technicians. They are not businessmen/women. Like, at all. It is often discussed how with the commoditization of our services we are in a race to the bottom by greatly undervaluing ourselves and each other. Many are in this race and unwittingly standing on the gas.

This sounds like a rant and perhaps at some level it is. But I'm seriously interested in the opinions of those that are businessmen/women, who understand economics and game theory (most shops seem to operate on a zero-sum game principle, whether they know it or not).

Automobiles are getting more and more complex, the skillset required to service them is growing and becoming much, much more difficult to find and retain (many, many other industries are looking for the skillsets, or a small fraction of the skillsets that many automotive technicians possess, that have far greater means to compensate for those skill than the auto repair trade currently has; a problem they've created for themselves with the constant undervaluing of their skills, knowledge, and services).

I suppose the easy answer is that is it a total "clusterf^&%" but will either solve itself or crumble altogether, I just really wanted to hear what someone that really knows what they are talking about thinks, and maybe even entice them to look into it and find out more about our trade.

Answer:

Auto repair is an example of a "credence good", which is a type of product or service where an expert knows more about the quality the consumer needs than the consumer themselves. These kinds of markets can work poorly if consumers are unable to...

Question:
Hi
I am trying to calculate GDP for countries and the numbers dont seem to add up.
I am using the formula GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government spending + Imports - exports
I am using the example of France
It has a GDP about 2500 bn dollars per year.
Thus the components of C, I, G and X-Y should equal about 2500 right?
These are the figures that I have found
C = 1360, Investment = 20 per cent of GDP ie around 500, G= 1370
Frances trade balance is negative to about 55 bn per year and government borrowing is 85 bn
So if you calculate 1360 + 500 + 1370 - 55 - 85 you end up with 3090 which is more that 20 per cent more than the published figure.
So where am I going wrong in my calculations?
I was thinking it was something to do with PPP v nominal dollar values but the difference between the two is only 10 per cent whereas my figures differ by more than 20 per cent
Thanks for any help
Mick Cooke
Figures are from
C = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_consumer_markets
I = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_gross_fixed_investment_as_percentage_of_GDP
G = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_government_budget
X-Y = http://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/fra/
Answer:

The main problem with your calculation is that you are using as "G" the French government's budgetary expenditure, which most likely includes large transfer payments. Transfer payments are not part of GDP. Another problem is that you are...

Question:
What percent of hog firms use forward contracting or options? Why do hog producers not use futures or options?
Answer:

Unfortunately data are not readily available on the percent of hog firms using forward contracting or options. What is readily available through Mandatory Price Reporting (MPR) data provided by USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service is the volume...

Question:
My bank wants to reorganize from a mutual savings bank to a mutual holding company. They have sent me a number of promotional items urging me to vote in favor of this reorganization, but I can’t figure out why I would or wouldn’t vote for this. What’s the difference? What are the pros and cons?
Answer:

A mutual savings bank (MSB) is a chartered financial intermediary that operates as an association of individuals who are depositors, also known as members.  MSBs are owned by their depositors, not stockholders, and this means that an MSB’s...

Question:
Given the increasing population migration to more urban centers - and maybe the possible validation of Richard Florida's 'creative cities' theory - what viable economic models are we seeing for smaller, rural Iowa communities, most of which are really struggling to maintain population and economic viability? In other words, is there any hope for these once thriving rural towns and, if so, what does that look like?
Answer:

It is useful to begin by noting that Nebraska has a higher proportion of its population living in urban areas (73%) than Iowa (64%). The reason is that Nebraska has only 4 metropolitan areas (Lincoln, Grand Island, Sioux City, Omaha), all of...

Question:
Disinflation describes a lower inflation rate than the previous month, using YoY values. Does it make a different interpretation if the MoM value decreases or increases? I have seen a decrease in the MoM value corresponding to a decrease in the YoY inflation as well as a decrease in a MoM value corresponding to an increase in inflation YoY. Does the MoM value tell you anything about the YoY value? I used to think the MoM value described accelerating or decelerating of the YoY inflation/deflation. Can you please elaborate on the relationship between MoM and YoY values, if any? Thank you.
Answer:

The easiest way to see the connection between Month on Month Inflation and Year on Year inflation is to take a step back and recall where these numbers are coming from.

 

The inflation numbers we see reported are reflecting the...

Question:
http://imgur.com/4uBj6mc

How do I read what is the most profitable? I want to buy low and sell high. Something called item-flipping.
Answer:

I’m not able to read (too small) the table. Regardless, I think the question relates to flipping stocks. Admittedly, my expertise is much more in commodity futures markets, but I believe the theory/rationale holds across markets. As such, my...

Question:
I have simple question and I hope you could help me with it. Why when someone books for one week for international flight during vacation time, it will be cheaper than two weeks, and two weeks cheaper than three weeks? Why is that from an economic prospective?
Answer:

I always thought that it was the other way around: the closer you are to the departure date the higher the price. Airlines have some market power and use pricing overtime as a way to second degree price discriminate: Consumers who plan long ahead...

Question:
What if I were to buy nearly 100 stocks in different companies and build an algorithm to sell them the minute I make money, and then buy a stock again, but different from the one I had just purchased. Wouldn't the build-up of all the stocks being sold and bought cause a rapid increase in profit? Sorry if this seems like a dumb question. I am 16 and I just had this question about how to exchange market works and if this is plausible.
Answer:

For such a strategy to work at the least following two conditions must hold:

- each time you transact, you need to correctly pick a stock that would eventually rise in price by enough to offset the bid-ask spread and transaction fees you...

Question:
What would be the possible outcome if the President were to initiate a program that would buy up all bad credit for those with credit scores below, say 670. All those who participate would agree to an auto draft of $20 per month or something until they reach 65 to pay back the debt owed the govt via creditors. Would this not help to stimulate the economy with individuals now having more credit power? Most people who get a second chance in the credit score will more than likely take care of it. You said ask right?
Answer:

This is a very intriguing proposal that deserves to be researched. It can have a stimulative effect for sure, at least in the short run. Once the government has paid off the bad debt, presumably banks will start lending again and that help...

Question:
I’m a student at Centennial High School in Pueblo, Colorado. I had a few questions about being an economist. What is it like being an economist? What do you do on a day-to-day basis? What benefits do you get from being an economist?
Answer:

Economics is a science, and the goal of all sciences is to better understand phenomena that we observe in the real world. In social sciences, like economics, the focus is on phenomena related to human behavior; and for economists, the...

Question:
Hello from New Zealand! I have a dataset of sales of products at auction from 1960-2020 in various countries. I have converted all of the sale prices to NZD but I would also like to adjust for inflation.My question is: since inflation is different in each country, should I adjust for inflation according to each country's inflation data before converting the values to NZD or should I just convert all of the values to NZD and then adjust for inflation based on New Zealand's inflation rates? The latter would be the easiest but would it result in bad data?
Answer:

The most correct way should be adjusting inflation according to each country's inflation data before converting the values to NZD if New Zealand is the baseline to compare with. The latter will not necessarily result in bad data as long as the...

Question:
I have noticed that Trillions of dollars of building during the Middle Ages went on in Europe from an agrarian/trading society. How did taxation of millions for farm labor become the basis of trade in Europe? It seems not rational that the food grown during the period 300 AD to 1780 was the basis of wealth. Therefore we know that mining silver, gold, copper allowed for coins but since there was no technology of the era that converts to the Trillions in Building out Paris, London, Prague, Austria, Russia. So, how was farm labor converted to the structures we see still standing today.....which architecturally are still the world standard for greatness.
Answer:

Medieval cathedrals and other structures are indeed impressive works of construction, and to look at them is to marvel at human ingenuity.  Medieval societies were in fact technological quite progressive, a fact documented for example in...

Question:
Here's what seems like a pretty fundamental one: Why do national government's now borrow exclusively from the private sector instead of from their own central banks and as a result pay high interest instead of essentially none, thereby greatly increasing the burden to the public and the national debt?
Answer:

If central banks are to lend to the government, they would have to print money and that is potentially inflationary. Forward-thinking countries try to control such a temptation by legislating in advance that their central bank be independent....

Question:
Hi, I hope to undergo a career in graphic design. My question is, what are the chances of artificial intelligence taking over a design-related job, and how can it affect my employment?
Answer:

Artificial Intelligence is likely to impact all of our jobs just to varying degrees.  Specific tasks that we need to perform in our jobs, skills required, wages, and hours will all likely be adjusted.  There will inevitably be winners...

Question:
I was just thinking about the massive economic dislocations resulting from World War I and their impact on Weimar Germany. But the dislocations spread well beyond there. The War had bankrupted England and France (though not so much the U.S.), to the extent that they forced Germany to pay such enormous reparations that Germany was a basket economic case in the 1920s. The U.S. economy boomed during that period, but it then crashed ten years later. After World War II, somewhat contrariwise, we had an unprecedented and never repeated period of growth and prosperity. After Vietnam, we had galloping inflation, followed (I think) by a recession. After seven years of a ruinous war in Afghanistan and Iraq, we had a Great Recession. Now I'm a political scientist, not an economist, but from the standpoint of political economy, it would seem that there must be correlations between massive military expenditures and economic cycles. The economy, that is to say, does not exist in a vacuum. So, Dr. Economist, is it possible that the famous "economic cycles" are not merely cycles that happen all by themselves, but rather sine waves that correspond with other fluctuations in military expenditures and war? As a political historian, I know that it has always been wars that have bankrupted nations and caused political upheavals. This is not new. Why not in our age? Why do we teach our students that there are recurring economic cycles without, in traditional economics, relating them to the military adventures of our own government, And that of others?
Answer:

There are really two questions here: (1) what are the causes of economic fluctuations, generally? And (2) what role do wars and military spending play in these fluctuations? 

Answering the first question is beyond the scope of this...

Question:
Does the ISU Economics Dept. have a position on whether the Federal Reserve Board should manipulate the federal fund rate to fight inflation? When I was at ISU there was a difference of opinion among professors due to the negative impact on employment.

When the Federal Reserve announces to the world that it’s going to slow down the economy to hold back inflation that has always meant that unemployment will eventually take a hit. In the three cycles since 1989 the unemployment rate starts declining 2.59-3.09 years after the Federal Reserve starts dropping the federal fund rate. The monthly unemployment rate has been falling at a predictable rate within 2.31% since January 2012. For some reason whoever is in the White House gets the blame or credit.
Answer:

As noted, when the Federal Reserve changes the amount of “monetary stimulus” in the economy, it tends to push inflation and employment in the same direction. Lowering the level of stimulus (by raising interest rates) puts downward pressure on...

Question:
When the GDP is calculated for a country, is inflation taken into account? What I mean is, if a country has 2% GDP growth, is that before or after inflation is removed from the equation.Because it seems to me that if a country's GDP grows by 2%, and inflation goes up 2% in that time, they may cancel each other out to actually have neutral growth.
Answer:

The difference is between real and nominal growth. The GDP of a country is the $ value of the goods & services produced by that country in a year. Say, the GDP of a country in 2010 is $100 and that in 2011 is $110. The increase could have...

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