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E.g., Tuesday, January 23, 2018
E.g., Tuesday, January 23, 2018
Question:
Please advise my going to become an economist. I was an average mathematics major as an undergraduate with a G.P.A. of 3.19 overall with a bachelor's degree in applied mathematics. I have about the average IQ for economists, but I know nothing about economics. Now that I am 41 this year, I am thinking of starting anew in a brand new area of applied mathematics. Is this advisable this late in life to switch careers from mathematics to economics given that the two share a common bond in mathematical economics and are theoretical in microeconomics?

Would the transition be better if I pursued pure mathematics instead, because my experiences has been lately in proof making? What can I look forward to? How and what should I be looking into, to start off, if economics is a good choice? I am a highly curious person. Plus, I have worked hard, I have been doing pure mathematics on my own since 2004 until presently; but, it has been slow going; so, I thought that by going into something that has a better return in investments of my intellectual energy, I should try microeconomics?
Answer:

The prospect of a mid-life career change would be daunting for anyone.  In the end, you’ll have to make that difficult decision on your own.  But I can give you a few tips on how you might begin to explore whether a career in economics...

Question:
A commodity (let's say a vegetable like squash or tomato) that is grown in Mexico and transported to the US and is being sold at 1.29/lb.
After about a month when the commodity has less than 2 weeks of shelf life it may be sold at .69/lb and then discarded after another week.

1) Why would the store not further discount these items at let's say .30/lb to clear the complete stock? ( I understand it is so as not to let the global/US prices of the commodity go down.)
2) Is wasting better for the store than to sell it at a discount?
3) Even if customers stop buying fresh commodity and start to wait until the price goes down to .30/lb. Isn't it economically profitable to the store to actually sell it than waste it ?

Thanks
Answer:

Food waste arises from preferences, incentives, and constraints. Retailers have time and other resource constraints which implies that it simply will not be worth it to sell every last item of food in every instance. It can be said that there is...

Question:
Hi there,

Okay, so this is going to be a really stupid question but I need to know the answer to this. There is a message board about collecting video games and we got into a argument about the definition of the word "rarity." With these games, we all know the exact amount of copies printed for each title. Say Game A has 2000 copies printed and Game B has 5000 copies printed. Assuming that no copies are lost or destroyed, Game A will always be rarer, correct? Someone else is arguing that the availability of copies on the secondary market changes this.

If Game A has 20 copies available on the marketplace right now and Game B only has 2 copies, would Game B be considered to be rarer overall? At that moment in time, sure, but overall, I would say no. Are either of us correct? Would the monetary value of the game on the secondary market change the definition of rarity? Thanks for your time!
Answer:

In the strictest (or standard) sense of the word, you would be correct that game A is “rarer”, given that there are fewer of these in existence than game B. However, the other person is not totally wrong because, in the words of economists, the “...

Question:
Do GDP figures include depreciation of infrastructure? What about other forms of depreciation, eg. consumption of non-renewable resources, or consumption of renewable resources at a greater than the sustainable rate?
Answer:

There is a large literature that attempts to adjust the various conventional measures of economic growth for the effects of environmental degradation. There is a useful Wikipedia page on the topic (...

Question:
Hi there, thanks for taking the time to answer my question.

I understand the basics of measuring GDP based on the product, income, and expenditure approaches, but I am stuck on a simple question: how are household savings accounted for using the expenditure approach if they are not invested?

In other words, say I earn $100, spend $98, and deposit $2 in a non-interest earning savings account. If the $2 (along with a lot more money, presumably) gets lent out to a company that builds a factory, then clearly that would be investment, but what if it just sits in the savings account? Does that count as “residential investment”?
Answer:

There are two components to investment in the national income identity. In addition to expenditure on capital equipment and buildings by firms, investment also includes additions to business inventories (goods that firms did not sell). So if you...

Question:
If 25% of the US population left their 401k (and other retirement funds) alone, reduced contributions by 25%(50%, 75%, 100%), withdrew all non-penalized funds and kept personal savings out of their banks, did not otherwise invest their money, what would happen nationally, internationally, immediately, long-term?
Answer:

My best guess is that you are interested in the effects of investors withdrawing from the financial market (as opposed to the labor market or some other market).

If 25% of the US population suddenly changed their investment behavior as you...

Question:
Why is it that the largest market fluctuations, by a large majority, mainly happen in September, October and November? What about those three months causes the massive fluctuations? It happened in 1929, 1987 and 2008.
Answer:

At present, I am not aware of a widely accepted academic research in economics and finance that would provide a definitive explanation for the exact calendar timing of major financial market fluctuations in the United States for the time period...

Question:
What is the median family spendable income for families living in Fort Dodge, IA.
Answer:

The American Communities Survey provides information on median household income

This is before taxes and transfers

American Fact Finder

https...

Question:
I wonder what "reduced-form analysis" is, and a non-reduced form would be. To be more specific, I'm reading an article (www.clevelandfed.org/research/review/1996/96-q1-craig.pdf) which states the following:

"Economic data usually influence policy through a reduced-form analysis...Explicit assumptions about behavior that underlie the relationship are not emphasized; rather, the researcher asserts that the “data do the talking.”"

The author later specifies what he means by "reduced-form":

"We use the term in a wider context, where the pattern in the data — not an assumed behavioral structure — forms the point of departure for estimation."
Answer:

A “reduced-form” analysis, also often referred to as “non-structural” analysis, is the most common kind of econometric analysis performed by economists. The other kind, which you called “a non-reduced form,” is customarily referred to as “...

Question:
How high can our national debt get (as a % of GDP) before it will be a threat to our financial stability? ie: dollar loses its status as the reserve currency.
Answer:

The national debt of the US is the amount owed by the US federal government and is the value of the Treasury securities that have been issued primarily by the Treasury and which are outstanding at that point of time. By far, the largest component...

Question:
If a business owner employs workers in a third world country, is it better (for the workers) to pay them in strong American dollars vs paying them with the local currency? Considering the American dollar will likely be stronger than that of a third world country, the workers will have more economic power with greenbacks than their own national currency.
Answer:

If the third world country has low and stable inflation, then it should not matter much; after all, there is a market exchange rate between say $1 and Indian rupees (these days, $1 = Rs. 60) and whether you pay an Indian worker $1 or Rs 60 should...

Question:
Why did China’s banking system grow so much since 2000 if the PBOC was actively increasing the RRR and withdrawing liquidity through FX Reserve purchases?
Answer:

First of all, I want to make it clear that, when a central bank increases its FX reserves, it supplies local currencies and increases liquidity in the money market. But this is certainly not the reason that China’s banking system grew so much....

Question:
Please disregard the implausibility of this question, I am curious on a purely hypothetical level. What would happen if all of the illegal immigrants and legal Muslim refugees were both deported and/or kicked out at approximately the same time. (As Donald Trump has sometimes suggested we should do) I would imagine that there would be significant negative impacts to the economy and specifically the housing market. But, I'm wondering how catastrophic those would be and if there would be any... Less obvious results?

Answer:

A 2012 United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service study used a simulation analysis to estimate the impact a 5.8-million-person reduction in the number of unauthorized workers—agricultural and nonagricultural. This was...

Question:
Is it true that large banks can borrow funds at close to 0% interest rates from the Fed and turn around and buy US bonds paying higher interest rates with the borrowed funds?
Answer:

Yes, large banks can in principle borrow funds at close to 0% from the FED and turn around and invest them on higher paying US bonds. But, when large banks do this, they push up the market price of these US bonds (being large players in the...

Question:
With the Trump administration intent on fiscal spending, there is opinion from bank economists that this shall cause weakness in the USD. If we assume the spending will be serviced by domestic bonds, is this really a credible argument in today's climate and why? Thanks
Answer:

An increase in government spending will increase the domestic interest rate. A lot depends on how analysts perceive future price levels and inflation. If the government spending is not expected to cause future inflation, an increase in interest...

Question:
I would like to ask you a basic question of not understanding quantitative easing. I understand the mechanics but I don't understand why this is considered pumping in "fresh" money, since the FED is just buying up Bonds that were purchased before. They are NOT just giving away absolutely free to BANKS. I know it's wordy but the below elaboration details my confusion. Hope you can help. Thank you!

In quantitative easing, the process of US Fed Bank buying bonds from Banks in order to increase money supply is pretty straight forward but no one seems to be able to explain my particular question or I guess confusion. I even posted on the US Fed open market website but they just gave me the typical answer I already knew.

Again, I'm aware that the FED can pretty much "print money" out of thin air and "inject" it into system but when I look closer at the details of what is happening, I still have trouble describing the process of injecting "fresh" money into an economic system because it looks as though they are limited by putting back the money that was spent to buy the bonds in the first place by banks.

So, to elaborate what I'm trying to say is that if you have a situation of the FED just giving away cash or call it a credit on their ledger for various banks out of the blue. Now that is exactly what I would call injecting fresh money because the banks didn't have to do anything or exchange anything in order to receive that money, just like if I were walking down the street and a complete stranger just came up to me and handed me cash. Now that scenario is what I would understand as injecting fresh money on top of a system.

But what is really happening is that under open market operation for quantitative easing, the US FED is buying up all the bonds that banks are holding at a given moment. Those bonds were purchased at an earlier time by various banks by giving money to the FED or other government agencies, so it looks at best to be putting all the money back into a system in which those monies were extracted from the system before, therefore it's not a "fresh" injection of new money. So it's just putting equal money back into system that was taken out at earlier time? Isn't it?

In other words, let's just say for simplicity that all US Banks spent $1 Trillion to buy bonds 5 years ago (so 5 years ago, $1 Trillion was taken out of an economic system) And now, 5 years later the FED is buying up those bonds from the banks(putting $1 Trillion back into system) The net effect is no new fresh money.

Put it another way, if you add up all the bonds that banks are holding, let's say it comes to $1 Trillion, the FED even though they want to inject $2 Trillion into system over time, they can not do that because all the bonds that are out there doesn't equal $2Trillion; they can only purchase back up to $1Trillion. So the saying, the FED can "print" money as much as they want into a system is not possible, at least in this example of how they do it now in the real world.

I'm sorry for such wordiness but you won't believe how much misdirected answers I get even from professionals. I'm really hoping you can shed some light on my confusion.
Answer:

Let me try to answer your question by breaking it down.

“In other words, let's just say for simplicity that all US Banks spent $1 Trillion to buy bonds 5 years ago (so 5 years ago, $1 Trillion was taken out of an economic system)”.

...

Question:
Hello, I'm a 42 year old woman from Los Angeles CA. Due to personal reasons I left the state for about 10 years. Now that I'm back, I noticed that things have changed a lot! For example: when I was a young adult, I used to work as a waitress. I remember that most of my co-workers were about the same age and most of us were attending Junior College. However, now I'm 42 years old, I noticed a completely new group of people. Most are mature, in their mid 30s to mid 40s. A lot of them made careers out of working as servers. How does it affect the economy to have more people pursue careers in minimum wage jobs?
Answer:

First, the characterization of foodservice and restaurant workers as a career track is inaccurate. The median age of restaurant workers is 28.4 years, the second youngest sector of our economy (next to retail shoe stores at 24 years). As shown in...

Question:
I took an undergrad macro economics class at Drake University a few years back and I had a hard time understanding the professor on several issues. (I want to say that I'm not politically motivated here, or trying to make a political point). One issue was regarding national debt and deficit spending. In class we discussed how historically the USA general public and government hadn't looked favorably on holding debt until the 1930's. During this time through borrowing and spending on domestic projects the federal government helped pull the nation out of the grips of the depression. Since then it's been an accepted part of life that deficit spending by the federal government has more good than ill effects. Sometimes I think this works, but too often it's just assumed it works and we've worked ourselves into a massive financial hole by this unchallenged assumption. The rational he used was the debt was being bought by citizens and thus the interest on this debt was owed to ourselves, and when the gov repaid the debt and interest there was a gain somewhere in the US economy for purchase or investment in something else. I could buy this point of view if the Treasury sales were restricted to US citizens, but the fact is there are many international purchasers of our debt so we are actually paying out interest to England, Canada, Japan, China, etc. So the beneficiaries are not ourselves, but foreigners. I'm not sure if the professor was getting his point of view from a textbook or his own judgement, but I'm curious why these viewpoints are not scrutinized more in academia. Any insight would be helpful, thanks!
Answer:

Your understanding is correct that government debt allows governments to handle economic recessions better. When the private sector employment and therefore consumption demand is shrinking, the government can increase its public sector spending (...

Question:
Is bitcoin meet the definition of money? if so How?
Answer:

Money refers to any asset that is widely used and accepted as a form of payment. It must be a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value (assets like stocks, bonds are all stores of value meaning they can be traded for goods at a...

Question:
Can you tell me a price range (per acre) that Central Iowa farmland sales have fallen within the last 6 months or so and is that price generally trending up or down? I am specifically interested in Webster County.
Answer:

Thank you for your question. Yes, we have recently developed a new Iowa Land Value web-portal which allows you to visualize the trends in Iowa land values at the county, district and state level. It is available at...

Question:
What are the best reasons one should buy a new car instead of a used one with low mileage and an in tact warranty. I ask, because my wife wants to purchase a new car, while I would prefer to purchase a slightly used car at a lower price. (letting someone else take the depreciation hit)
Answer:

There are many things to consider in making the choice between purchasing a new or used car, including a comparison of sticker prices.  As you suggest, new car values depreciate significantly in the first few months of ownership, often...

Question:
I am trying to get an estimate for 2014 arc-co corn and soybean payments for Monona and Harrison counties.
Answer:

ISU Extension has created tools to explore the potential benefits/payments from the programs in the 2014 Farm Bill. These tools are available from www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/...

Question:
I have read a few recent articles in the Wall Street Journal recently regarding farmers going out of business, prices for fertilizer inputs, and how well farmers have been doing producing crops. They were titled "The Next American Farm Bust Is Upon Us", "Here’s One Industry Where the U.S. Is Already Catching China—Fertilizers".

Regarding the first article, why are American farmers still incurring such high costs for production inputs and why do they really have no where to sell their grain and product to make any money? Secondly why are fertilizer inputs in particular so expensive when the second article talks about how our supply is expanding and we are producing more fertilizer than any other country? Shouldn't these input costs go down or be down because of such a high supply?

Lastly it seems that farm production has been peaking and they are doing extremely well in regards of yield and product output, consequently having no place to sell their grain. My question is where do Ag Economists forecast job growth will be greatest in the Agriculture Sector in the next five years? Which particular majors in certain sectors of the Ag industry will do the best and be in high demand?

Thank you for your time
Answer:

While it is true that, in general, farmers are still facing high production costs.  They have also seen some of those costs fall over the past couple of years.  And it is not true that they have nowhere to sell their products. ...

Question:
I would like to get your educated opinion on Right to Work, specifically, what will happen if all 50 states in our country become RTW states.

Right now, it is attractive for a corporation to set up or move their business to a RTW state due to lower wages and not having to deal with strong unions. I understand this. But how will a RTW state entice a company to move FROM a RTW state?

Cut corporate taxes? Suppress wages? Reduce services to the tax payers so more money can be given to the corporation? How will states entice business to set up shop once this is a Right to Work country? Thanks for your time.
Answer:

Your question requires that I explain some of the background for Right-to-Work laws, and I took the liberty of adding a more general answer on the effect of Right-to-Work on the economic outcomes for firms and workers.

Union strength in...

Question:
How can there be inflation at different rates within the same currency zone? For example, how can there be higher inflation in Greece than in Germany, despite having the same currency?
Answer:

Effectively, you are asking: how can there be different prices across countries within the same currency zone? This may sound surprising because within the Euro common currency, for example, we label regions as countries and there is a price...

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